Sero-prevalence of salmonella Typhi and its associated factors in patients presenting with febrile illnesses at Kisenyi heath Centre IV, Kampala Uganda.
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Typhoid fever is known associated with significant morbidity and mortality and has led to various epidemics over the last 10 years in Uganda. It is also recognized that a delay in diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy may significantly increase the risk of adverse outcome and mortality. In this study we determined the sero-prevalence of Salmonella typhi and its associated factors in patients presenting with febrile illness at Kisenyi Health Centre IV. Blood samples collected from outpatients were screened for presence of IgG/IgM antibodies using IgG/IgM rapid test kits and if it turned out to be positive, a confirmatory test; blood culture was carried out to examine bacterial growth. A total of 100 samples were collected aseptically and analyzed using standard microbiological methods. The study revealed an 8/100 prevalence of Salmonella typhi on IgG/IgM rapid tests while on blood culture it was zero. Factors such as age, occupation, marital status, sex, history of typhoid fever illness and antimicrobial treatment had no significant contribution to salmonella infections among people reporting with febrile illnesses. Study participants who reported having an age of 26-45 years, self-employed, married, had a history of typhoid fever illness, those had not sought antimicrobial treatment had a higher risk of having salmonella infection. According to this study the prevalence is very low in Kisenyi Health Centre IV and the major risk factors contributing to its incidence are inadequate food and personal hygiene; and lack of portable safe water. We recommend that the Kampala Capital City Authority, the MoH, the National Water and Sewerage Corporation, and partners invest in improving access to portable water, and safe sanitation and hygiene facilities to avoid an incidence of typhoid fever.