Efficacy of human-animal shared drinking water sources in Nakasongola district
Mugenyi, Mathew Kalumba
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Water quality refers to the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water based on the standards of its use. Its frequently used in reference to the set of the standards against its compliance, generally achieved through treatment of the water, can be assessed. The most common standards used to monitor and asses water quality convey the health of the ecosystem, safety of human contact, extend of water pollution and conditions of drinking water. Water quality has a significant impact on the water supply and often determines the supply options. In the study Wabale village in Nakasongola District, due to the climate comprising of short summers, hot, humid and overcast and the winters are long comfortable, muggy, wet, and partly cloudy, Over the course of the year, the temperatures typically varies from 60⁰ F and is rarely below 58⁰ F or above 95⁰ F, this kind of climate attracts pastorates to live within Nakasongola coupled with grassland vegetation for animal feed ,Wabale village consists of wells and dams for domestic water consumption, where by these are the same sources where animal like cattle, sheep and goats get there water from ,the continued interaction of these water sources with animals has led to water pollution within these water sources affecting its quality through erosion and sediment transport into the surface water ,through urine, feces dropped by the animals and fertility practices associated with production of high quality pasture and through pathogens from the water. The change in physiochemical parameters due to animal pollution has negative impacts on human health, these pose a great danger to human life hence contradicting diseases like cholera, typhoid fever and dysentery and in the long-term effects my include the damage of the kidney, liver, bone and brain. This is after continued sharing of the same water with animals without any treatment measure taken. Water was sampled from different sources of the shared waters subjected to physiochemical analysis, physiochemical parameters were compared using a t-test at critical p value of 0.05, there was a great significance in the PH (P=0.022), Color (P=0.039), TSS (0.000). There was no great significance for the rest of the parameters in comparison with the national water standards in the sources where samples were conducted. The analysis emphasizes that the change of the water physicochemical parameters is driven by domestic animals in the areas and it has a great negative impact on human life, the findings, therefore, demonstrate that more effort should be put into monitoring and protecting specific areas for animals and those for humans to reduce the dangers that are always caused by the interference.