Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Hoslundia Opposita Vahl root extracts
OGEN, JOHN RWOT
Ogen, John Rwot
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Dental caries have been historically considered the most important global oral health burden by the World Health Organization. The incident is worsened by increased consumption of sugary goods and inadequate exposure to fluoride. Tooth decay is a bacterial infection caused by Streptococcus mutans. Hoslundia opposita is a medicinal plant that is traditionally used to treat toothache among the people of Lamwo district in northern Uganda. Little work has been done on the screening of the roots of H. opposita to validate its effect on dental bacteria. Due to drug resistance, high cost, side effects and unavailability of treatment especially in rural communities, there is need to develop cheaper, safer and effective antibacterial drug through research. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the efficacy of the roots of Hoslundia opposita against Streptococcus mutans. In this study, phytochemical analysis of the roots of H. opposita was conducted and revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, tannins, phenols while flavonoids were absent. The antibacterial analysis of the methanolic extract showed high antibacterial activities than the aqueous extract. The antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract with inhibition zone diameter of (22 ± 0.01 mm) was higher than the aqueous extract with inhibition zone diameter of (18 ± 0.01 mm). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanolic extract (0.391 ± 0.61mg/ml) was lower than that of the aqueous extract (0.781 ± 0.23mg/ml). The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the methanolic extract (0.781 ± 0.01mg/ml) was found to be lower than that of the aqueous extract (1.563 ± 0.54mg/ml).