The antibacterial activity of the ethanol and diethyl ether extracts of Saba Comorensis Boj. Pichon leaves on Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae species
Wasswa, Jonathan Kibudde
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the biggest threats to global health. Resistant microbes are becoming increasingly difficult and costly to treat, a burden in developing countries (The Interagency Coordination Group (IACG), 2019). In sub-Saharan Africa and Uganda, bacterial infections are a constant thorn in health especially in children becoming one of the top causes of deaths (Fujita et al., 2015; Omulo, Thumbi, Njenga, & Call, 2015). These bacterial infections can be attributed to mostly gram-negative bacteria of the family enterobacteriaceae. These include Escherichia, salmonella, campylobacter, shigella, Klebsiella and proteus among others. One way of combating this is innovation of new drugs through screening for phytochemicals in plants using ethnobotanical literature (Srivastava, Chandra, Nautiyal, & Kalra, 2014). Traditional medicine has been around for thousands of years in indigenous communities being used to treat different ailments for both humans and animals. In recent years, medicinal plants have provided alternative source of bioactive compounds for drug development as well as cheaper alternatives to modern medicines (Gupta & Birdi, 2017; Quave, 2016a). This has been popularized with shift to herbal medicines for treatments. Such examples of drugs from herbal medicines include Zecuf herbal cough remedy. Even so, traditional medicine is widely practiced in developing countries due to cheaper costs, accessibility of herbal medicines and low incidences of toxicity (Namukobe et al., 2011; Ojelel et al., 2019; Tugume et al., 2016). Saba comorensis is a tropical rainforest liana native to East African countries such as Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania as well as West and Central Africa (Ojelel et al., 2019; Orwa, Mutua, Kindt, Jamnadass, & Anthony, 2009; Shomkegh, Mbakwe, & Dagba, 2013). It is used in traditional medicines in various communities in Uganda. This study sought to investigate the potential of the leaves to be used as a source of antibacterial bioactive compounds by screening for antibacterial activity of leaf extracts against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.