Investigating the use of agrochemicals, fumigants and drug concoctions in the control of acaricide-resistant ticks in Kiruhura district
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Ticks have remained the biggest limitation to the development of Dairy and Beef production in Uganda. This is because, they directly suck blood, destroy the hide, cause toxicity and most importantly is their ability to transmit disease causing pathogens to the animals that cause disease states. Due to emergence of multi-acaricide resistant ticks, there are increasing incidences of Tick-borne diseases. These are associated with great economic losses to the farmers by reducing the production of animals and also in the control of the vectors and Tick-borne disease treatment. Due to desperation and lack of possible alternative measure in tick control, farmers resorted to the use of agrochemicals, fumigants and other related drug concoctions to overcome the increasing population of the Acaricide-resistant ticks. A cross-sectional study was done in Kiruhura District aimed at understanding the agrochemicals and fumigants used in livestock production to control the ticks, usage, perceived efficacy and safety concerns. The research approach focused on qualitative nature. Quantitative approach aimed at capturing quantifiable data from which questions about measurable variables like the rate at which the use of crop pesticides has spread among different farmers, the perception of various respondents on the perceived efficacy and safety of the use of crop pesticides and fumigants to control acaricide-resistant ticks. The respondents included the farmers in the selected four sub counties of the district, Veterinary drug shops and Agrochemical shop attendants and Veterinary practitioners in the entire district. The study found out that, 50/68 (73.5%) of the farmers use crop pesticides to control the ticks. 56% of these use Dudu Acelamectin, 26% use 2 in 1 Ocelamectin and 18% use Lava. Most of farmers reported that they use a ratio of 4:1 (Acaricide: crop pesticide). Agrochemicals and fumigants were reported to have a number of side effects to the animals like Blindness that is so severe, skin rashes, hair loss, infertility problems, death and coat irritation in animals. In conclusion, crop pesticides and fumigants are highly being used in the control of acaricide-resistant ticks in Kiruhura District. However, the use of agrochemicals and fumigants to control ticks is more harm than good basing on their adverse effects to both animals and humans and should be stopped with immediate effect. The gov’t together with researchers should find an alternative of acaricide failure because the health of the animals is in great danger.