Phytochemical composition and antibacterial activity of aqueous and Methanolic extracts of citrus limon peels against Xanthomonas campestris PV musacearu.
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Citrus fruit plants are globally known and used in herbal medicine due to high antimicrobial activity of the phytochemicals present in different parts of the plant. The Genus has many species like Citrus limon, Citrus limetta, Citrus reticulate, Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisiac among others. The main objective of the study was to determine the phytochemical compounds in Citrus limon peel extracts and evaluate their antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas campestris pv musacearum. Clean dry lemon fruits were peeled to obtain peels that were cut into smaller parts, shade dried for 14days, dry milled and sieved to fine powder, then extracted with methanol and warm water. Phytochemical analysis of aqueous extracts was done following standard protocols. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic lemon peel extracts was examined against Xanthomonas campestris pv musacearum agram-positive bacterium using agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration determined. Aqueous extracts, methanolic extracts, ampiclox capsule solution used as positive control and sterile distilled water used as negative control were dispensed into agar wells .The experimental results showed that lemon peel contains flavanoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, phenols, citricacid, phytosterols, and essential oils which are responsible for the antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity showed that methonolic extracts were significantly more effective than aqueous extracts on the test on organism. The study revealed that lemon peel extracts have high antibacterial activity. This may be due to presence of high number of antibacterial phytochemicals like flavanoids, alkaloids and essential oils. Therefore Citrus limon peel extracts should be adopted in controlling banana bacterial wilt.