Assessing the survival mechanisms of communities to flooding events in Bwaise parish, Kawempe division, Kampala city
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Many cities in East Africa, particularly those in Uganda are facing with growing problems associated to flooding. Increased rain frequency and intensity alongside other factors such as settlement in flood plains due to destruction of wetlands, poor waste management, and increased surface run off exacerbate the situation. This study was undertaken to assess the survival mechanisms of communities to flooding events in Bwaise parish Kawempe division in Kampala city and to assess the types of responses that dwellers in informal settlements adopt to respond to flooding events in Kawempe Division. Specifically, the study sought to characterize the nature of flooding events in Bwaise parish Kawempe Division and to examine the impacts of floods on the livelihoods in Bwaise Parish Kawempe division and finally to assess the types of responses that dwellers in informal settlements adopt to respond to flooding events in Bwaise parish Kawempe Division. A cross sectional research study was undertaken using a mixed approach where simple random sampling was employed in selection of the households for interviews and purposive sampling on the key informants. Data was collected through field surveys, interviews and direct field observations and then analyzed using thematic content analyses where descriptive statistics were used. The study findings revealed that flooding was highly increasing in the area especially in Bwaise ΙΙΙ and it was the most flooded followed by Bwaise ΙΙ and lastly Bwaise Ι. The nature of flooding was attributed to an increase in the rainfall variability which triggers increased flooding events especially in March, April, May and in September, October and November. Poor sanitation, over flow of water, loss of lives, degradation of the ecosystem and blockage of the drainage channels are some of the negative implications on the livelihoods in the study area. The study further revealed the types of responses that dwellers in informal settlements adopt to respond to flooding events in Bwaise parish Kawempe Division which included Collection of wastes and proper disposal of wastes, residents emphasize on seeking alternative accommodation for children and elderly, frequent clearing of trenches to unblock drainage channels, frequent attention to communications about flood conditions from media, community leaders and related agencies, making of trenches in front of their houses and residents resort to seeking alternative living areas in case of severe flooding events. The study concludes that a lot has to be done to reduce on the flooding events and the study further recommends the need to develop a suitable land use plan for the area to check out the badly flooded areas.