Analysis of anti-parasitic activity of citrus reticulata (mandarin orange plant) seed extracts on the sheep and goat hookworm, Bunostomum Trigonocephalum.
Ssekabira, Vianney S
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Gastro-intestinal helminthosis is one of the most devastating disorders affecting livestock production in Uganda leading to tremendous losses. This is because of ever increasing antihelminthic resistance in prevalent parasitic nematodes that triggers re-infection in susceptible hosts. Among goats and sheep, Bunostomum trigonocephalum has been identified as one of the most- prevalent causing prolonged disorders that are difficult to manage. An in-vitro study was therefore conducted from August to October, 2022 at Makerere University of Kampala district, Uganda to analyze the anti-parasitic activity of Citrus reticulata seed extracts on Bunostomum trigonocephalum. Under this, hydroethanolic extraction, flotation and faecal culture techniques were used to obtain crude seed extract and infective L3 larvae of the parasitic nematode respectively. Different concentrations of crude extract and ivermectin as positive control were prepared by serial dilutions and tested against these infective L3 stages. Water was used as the negative control. Least crude seed extract and ivermectin concentrations for occurence of mortality were considered as minimum concentrations required for immobilization and death of Bunostomum trigonocephalum infective L3. Percentage mortalities of Bunostomum trigonocephalum infective L3 were also determined from initial numbers of live L3 and from those that remained alive after treatments with different concentrations of Citrus reticulata crude seed extract, as well as ivermectin. Results from the un-paired t-test revealed significant differences in average percentage mortalities for Bunostomum trigonocephalum infective L3 with different concentrations of Citrus reticulata crude seed extract and ivermectin (P<0.05). Minimum concentration for immobilization and mortality of Bunostomum trigonocephalum infective L3 was 2mg/ml. This therefore shows potential anti-nematocidal activity exhibited by some bioactive secondary metabolites present in Citrus reticulata seed. This also proves that only least concentrations of Citrus reticulata seed are required for use as effective antihelminthics against parasitic nematodes.