Determination of lead pollution in cocoyam from Nakivubo stream and Najjembe stream in Buikwe district
Mukhwana, Sharon Charity
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Increased human activities such as industrialization, urbanization together with high populations and ambient temperatures have greatly contributed to the availability of heavy metals like lead, zinc, and copper among others in the environment. Such activities including oil prospecting result in pollution of the environment through gas flares, constant oil spills and industrial effluence.( Udosen, ED, Akpan, EO, Sam,SM). Pollutants vary with activities and processes involved. Residents of such polluted areas stand a potential risk of ingestion of contaminated water, inhalation of contaminated air due to large amounts of hazardous wastes generated .intensive agriculture and other anthropogenic activities have also contributed to presence of lead in the environment. Disposal of municipal and industrial wastes is one of the prominent sources of heavy metals .they are either dumped along road sides, sewage is used for irrigation, metals these wastes are a source of carcinogens and other dangerous heavy metals. Other industrial activities that take place include those from steel, glass and paint manufacturing. Discharges from these industrial activities pollute air, water and soils endangering the environment as they ultimately find themselves in the food chain, albeit in small doses. These accumulate overtime and cause serious health risks to biotic organisms (sandeep, vijayalatha and anitha(2019). Exposure to very low levels of elements such as lead, cadmium and mercury have been shown to have accumulative effects since there is no homeostatic mechanism which operates to regulate the levels of these toxic substances(mallikarjuna kunjam,hephzibab govada, nataraj mididoddi). The major pollutants from industrial discharge have been shown to be lead, mercury, nickel, arsenic, zinc and copper. Lead intoxication has been reported to be associated with neurological problems, renal tubular dysfunction and anemia. Although zinc and copper are essential trace elements which may also serve as plant nutrients, they may be used as components of paint pigments. Consequently, their undue presence in the environment through industrial discharge can also be hazardous to mankind (Dr, Jiwan and Ajays). (Bessie effang Solomon and edidiong asuquo enoh, 2014) states that availability of solid particles on agricultural soils results in heavy metal accumulation and bioaccumulation in the soil and plants respectively. Quite a number of land use activities like industrialization subsequently lead putting synthetic products such as pesticides, paints, batteries, plastics normally result into heavy metal accumulation in the soil and subsequent bioaccumulation in plants. Research has shown that heavy metals can persist in the soil with densities greater than 6g/cm in soils that are heavily polluted. Most dumping sites are preferably used by farmers for cultivation because of the fertility that is attached to such areas. Plants if cultivated in areas of this kind, bio accumulate heavy metals either as mobile ions or through foliar absorption (srinivas, purushotham and murali(2013) . Prolonged consumption of unsafe food stuffs results disruption of various biological and biochemical processes in the body most especially infants. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of lead pollution in colocasia escalenta from both Nakivubo and Najjembe wetlands but also compare the obtained results with those in journals to evaluate how this lead pollution can be adequately solved. This is because over time, there is change in demographics; climate and activities are intensified among others. Therefore, there is need to determine how efficient the method was and improve where need comes.