Development of a herbal oral suspension from combined ethanolic extracts of Tamarindus indica and Phyllanthus niruri against uropathogenic Escherichia coli
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Introduction Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most frequent causes of morbidity (Moyo et al., 2010). Global disease burden study of 2019 reported a 48.57% increase in UTIs incidence rate compared to 1990. Crude herbal preparations have been use as alternatives in the management of UTIs which include; Tamarindus indica and Phyllanthus niruri. The research aimed at developing of a herbal oral suspension from combined ethanolic extracts of tamarindus indica and phyllanthus niruri against uropathogenic escherichia coli as an alternative for the management of UTIs Method Phytochemical analysis was conducted using qualitative laboratory method while agar well diffusion method was used to determine antibacterial activity of the extracts. Acute and subacute toxicity evaluations were done in accordance to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test No. 423 and No. 407 respectively. Results Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoid, tannins, anthraquinones, alkaloids and saponins in both plant extracts. The antibacterial efficacy against E.coli showed greater zones of inhibition (14mm) in combined plant extracts compared to single extracts of Phyllanthus niruri and Tamarindus indica which were 13.0mm and 12.2mm respectively. Tests of acute and subacute toxicity showed safety even at 5000mg/kg there was no death. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts of Phyllanthus niruri and Tamarindus indica were 21.23mg/ml and 9.59mg/ml respectively. Statistical analysis of results from CBC, RFTs and LFTs using one way ANOVA showed no significant difference between the test groups and negative control (P˃0.05). Conclusion Findings from this study supports the use of combined extracts of tamarindus indica and phyllanthus niruri as an alternative treatment for uropathogenic E.coli.