Prevalence of high titre anti – A and anti – B antibodies among blood group O donors at Gulu Regional Blood Bank
Wekesa, Wakungu Alfred
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In many countries, blood group O is considered a universal donor; nevertheless, there have been reported cases of transfusion reactions due to transfusion of group O whole blood and its components in non O recipients. These adverse outcomes are attributed to high titres of naturally occurring immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immune immunoglobulin G (IgG) blood group antibodies in this donor blood. Antibody levels vary in diverse populations and are not known at the Gulu Regional Blood Bank (GRBB) setting. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, and titre levels of anti-A and anti-B antibodies amongst group O donors. A cross-sectional study was adopted and carried out at GRBB between June and September 2022. A sum of 400 group O donors took part in the study. A purposive sampling method was used. A questionnaire was used to obtain demographics and specific known variables related to high antibody titre. Donor blood was collected and processed to obtain plasma which was afterwards titrated by the use of an immunohematology analyzer (Immucor Neo®) to detect IgM and IgG anti-A and anti-B antibody titres. In assessing the relationship between high antibody titre and variables, Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used. The majority of donors were male 297 (74.25%) with the most common age group was of 20-34 years consisting 264/400(66.6%). The overall prevalence of high titre among the group O donors was at 24.75 % and specificity (anti-A and anti-B) using an antibody dilution cut off of ≥ 1:64. The prevalence of group O donors with titre ≥ 1:64 was 13.5% for anti-A, 11.25% for anti-B. Past transfusion history, and pregnancy were not related to high antibody titre. Gender (OR 2.157 95%CI 1.095-4.249) and anti-A antibodies (OR 5.798 95%CI 2.870-11.717) were the only risk factors for anti-B antibodies. Anti-A antibodies were a greater risk factor that presented individuals with a 5.798 times chance compared to those without. Age offered a protective advantage to high titre anti-B antibodies with OR of 0.451 95%CI 0.255-0.797. None of the variables was a risk factor for anti-A antibodies.
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