Assessement of acaricide use and susceptibility of ticks infesting cattle in Napak District, Karamoja Subregion
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Livestock farming especially cattle keeping plays an important role in supporting the livelihoods of farmers in Napak district, Karamoja sub region. However, ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) have been identified as one of the major constraints to cattle keeping due to their adverse health and economic effects downsizing livestock production in the area. Presently, no study has been conducted in Napak district to assess farmer’s Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) on chemical tick control method and as well susceptibility of ticks infesting cattle, yet such information is vital in ensuring the implementation and adoption of effective chemical use as a measure of ticks and TBDs control. Therefore, a KAP study was conducted among 119 farmers using a semi structured questionnaire and the susceptibility of cattle ticks, R. (Boophilus) decoloratus and A. variegatum species to common acaricides on market, were investigated using AIT and LPT bioassays at discriminating doses. Both studies were conducted between August and November, 2022. The KAP survey showed that most farmers (79%) used hand sprayer followed by knapsack sprayer (21%) for spraying and inappropriate acaricide use practices such as wrong dilution ( Estimation,32% and Non calibrated top, 22.7%) , use of same acaricide brands for long periods (95.8%), longer application interval (Monthly, 75.6%) and inappropriate restraint method (Boma, 94.1%). AIT results on R. (Boophilus) decoloratus showed a significantly higher susceptibility of over 83% to SP (Deltamethrin) and COF (Duodip) and least susceptibility of 41.7% and 8.3% was recorded in OP (Chlorfenvinphos) and amidines (amitraz) respectively. A. variegatum tick species showed higher susceptibility of over 87% to SP, OP and COF but no susceptibility was recorded in amitraz. LPT results carried on A. variegatum showed over 95% mortality in SP, OP and COF except in amitraz (14.5%). Least susceptibilities of R. (Boophilus) decoloratus recorded in OP and amitraz and of A. variegatum in amitraz in both AIT and LPT is indicative of possible developed acaricide resistance. Findings from this study are expected to guide in addressing the identified knowledge gaps and designing interventions to enhance the adoption of an effective chemical tick control as a measure of preventing TBDs and subsequent improvement of livestock health and production in the Napak and Karamoja Sub-region.