Factors associated with psychosocial wellbeing of pregnant women at Kawempe National Referral Hospital
Psychosocial wellbeing to the interrelations of the social environment and psychological health of an individual (Degirmenci, 2020). It is multidimensional and covers areas such as depression, stress, self-sufficiency and social support (Maxson, 2016). During the pregnancy, women are especially vulnerable to facing psychological problems, particularly stress and anxiety disorder with comorbidity of depression (Walsh, 2019). The psychosocial wellbeing of pregnant women is an important aspect of overall maternal and fetal health. These problems have been linked to a number of negative outcomes, including preterm birth, low birth weight, poor maternal mental health, including depression and anxiety (Dennis, 2017). A number of factors, including stress, social support, and access to healthcare, have been identified as being associated with the psychosocial wellbeing of pregnant women. The results of previous studies show that psychosocial wellbeing and its components have varying status in different stages of life and in relation to demographic characteristics, and various factors can impact the psychosocial wellbeing level of individuals (Michaeli, 2022). The experience of pregnancy, with its accompanying profound physical and mental changes in women's life, affects all dimensions of life including psychosocial wellbeing (O’Leary, 2015). Researchers believe that pregnancy, in addition to disruption in psychosocial wellbeing and mental health, creates the basis for stress, anxiety, and depression during and after pregnancy and future emotional disorders in the child, and increases the risk of behavioral issues in early childhood ( Liu et al., 2013). Social support has also been identified as an important factor in promoting psychosocial wellbeing during pregnancy. Research has shown that women who have a strong support system, including a partner, family, and friends, are more likely to have a positive pregnancy experience and report better psychosocial wellbeing (Bedaso et al., 2021). Access to healthcare, including prenatal care, is also an important factor in promoting psychosocial wellbeing during pregnancy ( Dadras et al., 2021). Prenatal care can help to identify and address potential risks to the mother and baby, as well as provide emotional support to the mother. Studies have found that women who receive adequate prenatal care are more likely to have positive pregnancy outcomes and report better psychosocial wellbeing (Peahl et al., 2020). The majority of previous studies, especially in Uganda have only focused on areas such as psychological distress, anxiety and depression (Osok, 2018; Sakamoto, 2022). and very little is known about the psychosocial wellbeing of the pregnant women in Uganda. Thus, the question arises as to whether the pregnant women in Uganda have good psychosocial wellbeing hence this study was conducted to determine the psychosocial wellbeing of the pregnant mothers in Uganda. By understanding the factors that are associated with psychosocial wellbeing during pregnancy, healthcare providers can develop interventions to support pregnant women and promote healthy pregnancies.