Vulnerability and adaptation options of smallholder farmers to water stress in Luwero District, Uganda
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Water stress impacts on agriculture are challenging most many small holder farmers in Uganda. Nonetheless, there is limited information on vulnerability to water stress among smallholder farmers in the cattle corridor of Uganda. The objectives of this study were; (1) to assess farmers’ current adaptation knowledge on water stress; (2) to determine the exposure and sensitivity of smallholder farmers to water stress; (3) to identify the adaptive capacity strategies used by smallholder farmers. Two parishes of Ngogolo, Bamugolode in Butuntumula sub-county were chosen.30 interviews and one Focus group discussion was conducted. Data was summarized in SPSS. The majority of farmers expressed concern that they were exposed to seasonal changes and high temperatures which is increasingly manifested in the area. Smallholder farmers observed crop failure due to increased pests and diseases attackers which subsequently lead to food insecurity in crop growers and among Livestock keepers. Feed shortage and water shortage were the major impacts. A combination of adaptation options are used including; Tree planting, application of fertilizers, smart agriculture, water harvesting, Irrigation, crop rotation, mixed cropping, early preparation of gardens and planting of drought resistant varieties. Limited assets affect the adaptive capacity. The study concluded Luweero district is vulnerable to water stress just like other farming districts in the country. Based on the results of the study, there is need to support smallholder farmers with crop varieties that responds to rising temperatures.