Socio-economic factors of dairy cattle keeping in the per-urban areas of Wakiso and Kampala
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Small scale and medium dairy production is becoming more recognised by the urban and peri-urban dwellers as a very important source of income. This study investigated the social economic factors of dairy farming in the peri-urban areas of Kampala and Wakiso districts in the central region of Uganda. Specifically, it examined the major reasons for possession of dairy animals, gender roles in animal management and decision-making process. The study also examined the major challenges facing dairy enterprises in the study areas. The study employed qualitative methods of data collection to study 70 dairy farmers. A cross sectional survey was used to sample and administer pre-tested questionnaires to 70 dairy farmers in the study areas. Data were analysed using the SPSS data analysis software. The major reasons for possession of dairy animals were: love for animals and money to supplement family income (27.4%) especially among Kampala farmers, money to supplement household income (21.4%), livelihood (18.6%), and hobby or love (15.7%) animals whereas need for fresh milk for the family was the least reason for possession of dairy animals. The major challenges facing dairy farmers in the study areas were; diseases (18.9%), shortage of fee (17.9%), shortage of reliable labour (10.2%), low fertility (8.1%), insufficient space (6.9%), city authorities (5.8%), and veterinary services (5.5%). Hired labour was the main source of labour in management of the animals (66%), men (12%), women (8.5%) and boy child (5.8%) while 7.7% of the labour was provided by the different combinations of different efforts. Men dominated decisions of animals selling (52.9%), equally decided on milk sell with women (44.3%) and decided least (24.4%) on milk for home consumption. The women (30%) decided on selling animals, 44.3% selling milk and 72.9% of milk for home consumption. Joint decisions taken by both men and women together were 17.1% selling of the animals, milk and milk for home consumption. Other family members had limited decision making regarding selling of the animals, 1.4% selling and also 1.4% in milk for home consumption. The dairy enterprise was found to be an important venture with great potential to contribute on alleviation of poverty, employment generation, supplementing household incomes as well as food security. It is recommended that technical and institution involvement is required to turn round the identified challenges and gaps in dairy enterprise in the study areas in order to improve dairy production.