Phytochemical analysis of coleus latifolius claimed to have antimalarial activity
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Malaria is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world, with 10-150 million people showing signs and symptoms of the disease annually. It is also known to be popular in Uganda claiming approximately 42 children under the age of five daily. A number of approaches have been used to reduce malaria in Uganda and those approaches include; Reproductive Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (RMNCH) shaped plan, use of Insecticide Treated-Nets (ITNs), Integrated Community Case Management (ICCM) among other. Despite the approaches malaria still remains a burden to Ugandans. Chemotherapy is the most important method of controlling malaria, although the incidence of parasite resistance to common drugs is on rise. People in Uganda especially those in rural areas rely mainly on herbal medicine for their primary Health care. The dependence is due to; limited access to modern medicine, confirmed therapeutic evidence of herbal medicine, and believe that herbal medicine pose no risk. Many antimalarial plants have been documented but only a few have been analyzed and their phytochemical assay established, basing on this back ground coleus latifolius (also known as mubiri in Luganda) was analyzed. Coleus latifolius is claimed by the local people to have antimalarial activity. Mainly it is used in conjunction with other antimalarial plants and the mode of administering is smearing. The fresh plant was collected, washed and then crushed, it was then cold macerated using water, methanol and Ethyl acetate in separate beakers. The extracts were concentrated and then using the standard method for phytochemicals analysis, phytochemicals were tested. The phytochemical analysis of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of fresh leaves of coleus latifolius revealed the presence of Saponins and reducing sugars while the Ethyl acetate extract contained saponnins, tannins, reducing sugars and phenolics. Tannins, Saponins and phenols are known for antimalarial activity therefore their presence indicates that they are the one responsible for the antimalarial activity of coleus latifolius.