Urban River Pollution: A Case Study of River Mpanga in Fortportal City, Kabarole District
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Water quality is needed to maintain the integrity of a river system and depends on the preservation of natural (chemical and biological) conditions of the water and the surrounding environment. Unsustainable use and pollution through various human activities can impair the ecological state of a natural ecosystem by altering its chemical composition and the biological communities that naturally occur in it. To identify the human activities carried out on river Mpanga, Assess the effect of these human activities on river Mpanga and finding out the level of awareness of legislations concerning rivers among the community within river Mpanga, a study was conducted where survey data was collected and chemical analyses were carried out. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods for data collections, Simple random sampling was used to draw a sample from residents operating and living within Mpanga catchment in Fortportal City. The survey results indicated that various activities carried out within the Mpanga catchment including farming, improper waste and sewage disposal have a large influence on the physical and chemical water quality of the river. These human activities had negative effects on River Mpanga including; siltation, Eutrophication, water hardness, toxicity etc. Laboratory analysis was done on the River water at different points and Using GenStat software, data was analysed at 5% significance level. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in the pH, P, K, BOD and COD level at different points along the stream (p<0.05) . However, there was no significant difference for the levels of N, Ca and Na in the water at different points along the stream (p>0.05). It was concluded that human activities have led to increased pollution of this river and was due to lack of information and knowledge about laws concerning rivers. The study recommended that people should be sensitized on the values, uses, guidelines and laws for sustainable use of rivers.