Antimicrobial resistance of selected bacteria isolated from the oral and rectal swabs of rodents around Bwindi Impenetrable National park
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The objectives of this study were to determine the occurrence of Salmonella, Escherichia .coli and Staphylococcus aureus in rats from Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, and their associated antimicrobial sensitivities. A cross section study was carried out from July to November 2018, where rats were trapped and captured from the homes where the oral and rectal swabs were collected aseptically and stored in Stuart transport media. These samples were cultured for E.coli, Salmonella and S. aureus SNA ,XLD ,and VRBA media respectively after which biochemical tests were carried to confirm the species. Finally, antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried on Mueller-Hinton agar using selected antimicrobial agents(Tetracycline, Streptomycin, Ceftiofur, Ampicillin and Enrofloxacin). The bacteria, S. aureus, E. coli and salmonella were isolated in in this study. In the oral samples, E. coli had the highest prevalence (90%), followed by S. aureus (88%). In the rectal samples; 80% S. aureus, 88% E.coli and 4% salmonella were positive. Overall, resistance was more towards tetracycline and streptomycin in both the oral and rectal samples. In the oral samples, E coli was more resistant to tetracycline followed by staphylococcus aureus. Drugs such as enrofloxacin (OFX5), ceftiofur (XNL30), Ampicillin (SAM) and streptomycin (S10) represented the highest antibacterial activity against almost all the test bacteria especially S. aureus. In the rectal samples, S. aureus represented the highest level of resistance to tetracycline followed by Salmonella. Staphylococcus aureus showed susceptibility to enrofloxacin, ceftiofur, ampicillin and streptomycin. This study shows that rats are reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant bacteria that affects humans and animals especially the endangered mountain gorillas. Therefore, due to the fact that humans and animals around wildlife protected areas often share certain food and water sources, the risk of contracting these pathogenic organisms is high. It is necessary to carry out mass sensitization to people in these communities through UWA and ministry of health about the effects of rats within their homesteads and hence institute a vermin control program. Rats from the forest should also be sampled to find out if they also contain these pathogenic bacteria.