Examination of the water quality of river Mpanga
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River Mpanga is the main water source to the communities through which it flows. It is still the main water source to the NWSC from which water to be treated and purified for supply to the public is extracted. Subsequent contamination and pollution has altered the change in composition and affected the quality of the river water. The contamination and pollution are as a result of unregulated and unmonitored human/anthropogenic activities along the river. These activities include car washing, sand mining, agriculture that has destroyed the river bank profile, stone extraction and cleavage, use of fertilizers, poor solid waste management and others. These overtime can impair the river to levels which cannot support the different life forms and further making it unsafe for drinking or extremely expensive to treat so as to meet the required standards. By identifying the sources of contamination and pollution, appropriate conservation and management strategies are derived such that public health risks are minimized and sustainable development achieved. By analyzing the quality of the water, at different points on the river, data collected aimed to identify the pollution points and sources and hence recommendations for better management. The composition of reactive phosphorus downstream was 0.33mg/l, 0.329mg/l, 0.099mg/l, 0.103mg/l and 0.06mg/l from site one to five respectively but the concentration in all sites is below the maximum permissible limit for standard discharge of effluent or waste water according to The National Environment (Standard for Discharge of Effluent into Water or on Land) Regulations, S.I.No 5/1999 of the National Environment Act 1995. And the composition of nitrates downstream was 2.4mg/l, 2.3mg/l, 2.7mg/l, 2.4mg/l and 1.8mg/l from site one to five respectively however the concentrations are above the maximum permissible limit. This implies that the water is still suitable for use such as for laundry and car wash but not suitable for drinking and still requires abstraction and treatment by the NWSC to meet the required standards.