Cost and returns of producing crossbred (large white x landrace) pigs from weaning to market weight in Uganda
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A trial lasting 120 days was conducted to evaluate the costs and returns of producing pigs from weaning to market weight under production conditions in Uganda. Returns were calculated using practical feed rations, production methods, and costs that reflect the Uganda production environment. A total of 25 cross bred (Large White x Landrace) pigs averaging 9.4 kg were used in the study. At the start, animals were divided into 5 groups having five pigs each balanced for sex, litter and weight. Animals were fed on a standard maize bran-fish meal diet balanced to supply 20 percent Crude protein, 0.5 percent Ca and 0.65 percent Phosphorus. When animals attained 20 kg live weight the diet was adjusted to contain 16 percent Crude protein and the animals were provided with this diet until they made a weight of 50 kg. Measurements of body weight and feed consumption were taken on a weekly basis. Average daily gain was approximately 326 grams and finished animals were marketed at an average weight of 45kg. For each finished pig, about 239 kg of feed were fed. Animal health expenses like the cost of commonly used de-wormers, miscellaneous costs on antibiotics and veterinary service were charged at UGX 2,000 per pig raised. Labour costs were based on pay rate of UGX 100,000 per month without benefits. The labour cost per finished pig sold was UGX 16,000. Administrative costs like supervision were estimated to be UGX13,600 per pig sold. Some of the other production costs included feed delivery and the minimum feed transportation cost per pig was UGX 8,000. Finished pigs yielded 65% of their live weight as saleable meat. In Uganda saleable meat is constituted by carcass minus the head and trotters. At an average farm gate price was UGX 7,500 per kg of pork, each pig fetched UGX 220,000. Given the number of animals involved and biological performance, the results showed that the costs of production were higher than the returns. It was recommended that to break even or even obtain profits a farmer would require a larger number of weaners and animals of better biological performance.