Effect of Eutrophication on the quality of water along the shores of Lake Victoria
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Eutrophication is a serious environmental problem since it results in deterioration of water quality and is one of the major impediments to achieving Uganda’s development objectives. Many polices and laws have been established to control the release of toxic pollutants into the water. Despite all these efforts, the quality of water in Lake Victoria has continued to decline over the years due to the increasing level of Eutrophication. A study was carried out at two sites of Ggaba and Port Bell on Lake Victoria with the objective of assessing the impact of Eutrophication on water quality of Lake Victoria. Four random samples of water each were picked from four points A, B, C, and D with increasing distance of 10 meters away from the lake shore. The water samples collected were analyzed for pH, EC, TP, TN, Ca, K, Na and BOD. Overall, significantly (p<0.05) higher nutrient concentrations were observed at Port Bell as compared to Ggaba. The average TP level 3.4mg/l observed was far higher than the Uganda standard P level for portable water while that of Nitrogen 9.2mg/l is below the standard. The BOD levels of 49.38mg/l at Portbell and 8.0mg/l at Ggaba are higher than the recommended levels for portable water quality. Generally, the eutrophication level at the Lake Victoria shores has significantly lowered the quality of water and this is detrimental to the sustainability of the water body and to the lives of those that directly or indirectly depend on it for their livelihoods. The situation is even severe for areas near industrial centers and human urban settlements. Efforts to curb this situation should be through sustainable watershed management practices that need to be established in the Lake Victoria watershed.