Antihyperglycemic activity and Phytochemical composition of Citrus Limon fruit juice
Walusimbi, Mpanga James
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Diabetes mellitus is the world’s largest endocrine disease characterized by hyperglycemia. It is managed mainly using conventionaldrugs butthese are faced by limitations such as side effects, not being easily accessible, especially in rural areas and being expensive. As aresult, people have resorted to different alternatives likedietary adjustments and use of medicinal plants,citrus limonfruit juice being one these. However, there is scanty literature about the exact dosage of the fruit juice to be taken. This study therefore aimed at determining the phytochemical composition andantihyperglycemic effect ofthree varying dilutions of citrus limonfruit juice. Phytochemical composition was determined using standardmethods.Theantihyperglycemic effect was determined using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGGT)whilewistar rats were employed as experimental animals. Alloxan15mg/kg was used to induce diabetes. Glibenclamide5mg/kg was used as a standard drug and therefore the positive control. Three treatment doses ofconcentration0.025ml (group 4),0.05 ml (group5) and 0.1 ml (group6)ofCitruslimon juice per one ml of waterwere reconstituted and given to three treatment groups, respectively. Results for phytochemical composition indicated thatCitruslimonfruit juicecontainedflavonoids, general quinines, coumarins, steroids, tannins, reducing compounds,saponins and cardiac glycosides.Among all these, reducing sugarswere the most intense while the rest existed in either moderate or trace amounts.All the three groups 4, 5 and 6,treatedwith Citrus limonfruit juice induced a marked reduction in blood glucose levels. The concentration of 0.1mlper one ml of watergiven to group 6 induced the best glucose lowering effect of 11.1 mmol/L.However, its glucose lowering effect was not as goodas that of the glibenclamidethe standard drug which was reduced to 8.3 mmol/L. Thoughthe three treatments of Citrus limon fruit juice were not as effective as the standard drug, it is concluded that Citruslimonfruit juice possessantihyperglycemic activity. Further studies can be carried out to establish a more effective dose of Citrus limon fruit juice that is more comparable with the conventional drug glibenclamideas well as the safety of this juice at such concentrations.