Spatial and temporal patterns of priority bacterial zoonoses between 2009-2018 in Uganda
MetadataShow full item record
Anthrax and brucellosis remain a significant burden to the public and veterinary health globally. By far, the biggest challenge is faced in the rural communities, in developing nations. In Uganda, anthrax and brucellosis are endemic despite the great strides in eradicating these diseases. To date, limited information is available on the trend of these diseases among livestock in Uganda and yet such information could be used to guide the appropriate control strategy. This retrospective study investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of anthrax and brucellosis from January 2009 to December 2018. Secondary data of anthrax and brucellosis outbreaks reported to the Department of Livestock health and entomology MAAIF/ NADDEC for the period of 10 years from 2009 to 2018 was used for this study. Data was analyzed using geospatial analytical techniques and a geographic information system (GIs) to assess the presence of hotspots i.e. areas of outbreak clustering and the trends of their emergence over time. Also, SPSS was used to evaluate the annual numbers of outbreaks as a function of time. Thereafter, a robust picture of the spatial and temporal distributions was produced. Disease incidence and the space-time analysis approach enabled visualization of areas with statistically significant increasing and decreasing trends of outbreak clustering providing a practical opportunity to inform decision makers and allowing the veterinary services to concentrate their efforts on monitoring the possible risk factors in the identified locations. Both anthrax and brucellosis were found to be endemic in Uganda following a seasonal trend. The number of brucellosis cases reported in cattle was higher than that of anthrax. Outbreaks were high in the cattle corridor areas of Uganda except for the Eastern region that had no anthrax cases and only a few brucellosis cases. Areas of concern identified as clusters by the spatial-temporal statistical analyses can provide a starting point for implementing targeted intervention efforts. There is need to improve surveillance, to develop a differential vaccination strategy, other control measures and preventive recommendations to reduce anthrax and brucellosis in high risk areas. In the low-risk districts / areas, maintenance of effective surveillance systems and development of awareness is very important to detect and contain outbreaks early.