Prevalence of urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance of common uropathogens to frequently used antimicrobial drugs among patients attending Mulago National Referral Hospital
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Urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain to be one of the most common infections diagnosed in outpatients as well as hospitalized patients in Uganda. Current recommendations for empirical therapy for community-acquired urinary tract infection are based on knowledge of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in a particular region. This knowledge is essential for timely and appropriate therapy. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Urinary Tract Infections, the most prevalent isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns to commonly used antimicrobials among patients attending Mulago National Referral Hospital. Urine samples collected from study participants were examined and cultured on agar plates. Biochemical tests were performed to confirm the isolates and susceptibility of these isolates to particular drugs was tested by culturing the isolates on plates that had antibiotic disks. The zones of clearance were the measured to identify those that were susceptible, resistant or intermediate to a particular drug. A total of 237, clean catch midstream urine samples were collected aseptically and analyzed using standard microbiology methods. The study revealed 64/237 (27%) UTI prevalence among the participants. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent bacterial uropathogen with 18/64(28.1%) followed by Citrobacter freundii 11/64(17.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 8/64(12.6%), Staphylococcus aureus 7/64(10.9%), Candida albicans 6/64(9.4%), Enterococcus species 3/64(4.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2/64(3.1%) and Proteus mirabilis 1(1.4%). This study showed that Most of the isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole, ampicillin and cefuroxime. This study has demonstrated that the current regimens for treating Urinary Tract infections are not helpful in treating the infections and there is need for revision of the clinical guidelines in order to suite the changing resistance patterns.