Quantitative analysis of heavy metals in juice and water.
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This study was done to quantify the heavy metals in the juices and water that may cause health effects to consumers. Fruit juices play an important role in the diet of a human being and are consumed in everyday life. Fruits were obtained from markets and they are expressed in a reamer to obtain the juice. This is diluted to a certain extent, it was then strained and pasteurized and then filled into bottles and then sealed. The preservatives that are used include sodium benzoate, sodium metabisulphate which is an anti-oxidant and also prevents the growth of microorganisms. Many fertilizers are used in the fields to aid the proper growth of the fruits, also as a result of soil, atmosphere, underground and surface water pollution, the food gets contaminated with heavy metals. Some essential metals are involved in numerous biochemical processes and adequate intake of essential metals which perform important biochemical functions is necessary for good health. Copper (Cu) is an essential metal which perform important biochemical functions and is necessary for maintaining health throughout life. Adult human body contains about 1.5-2.0 ppm of Cu which is essential as a constituent of some metalloenzymes and is required in haemoglobin synthesis and in the catalysis of metabolic oxidation. Symptoms of Cu deficiency in humans include bone demineralization, depressed growth, depigmentation and gastro-intestinal disturbances. Heavy metals contamination has become a matter of public health concern but this has not received much research attention especially fruit juice contamination through heavy metals. This study aims to detect some of the heavy metals and find their concentrations in the juices and water which is used. The metals that are being detected include Barium, Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Calcium, Zinc, and Copper. It was found out that the concentration of the concentrations of some of the heavy metals in the fruit juices and water under this analysis include copper, Chromium, Cadmium, lead, Zinc, Barium, and Calcium. The concentration of the heavy metals ranges from 0.20-3.632, 0.02-0.54, 0.02-0.052, 0.620-0.890, 0.150-0.180,0.090-0.130,44-55 for Copper, Chromium, Cadmium, Lead, Zinc, Barium, Calcium respectively. From the results, it is revealed that the concentration of Chromium, barium, Calcium and Zinc are within the acceptable limits set by the world health organization (WHO). The concentration of copper in mango juice was 3.632mg/L which is far above the maximum permissible levels of 2mg/L by WHO. The concentration of Cadmium in all the fruit samples is above 0.003mg/l which is recommended by WHO in all the juice samples. The concentration of lead is much higher the safe limits recommended by WHO which are 0.01mg/L. The concentration of calcium is not of much concern since it does pose a health concern never the less its concentration shouldn’t exceed 60mg/L according to WHO. The level of copper, cadmium and lead may pose a threat to health of the consumers if taken for long time.