Socio-economic and demographic factors associated with fistula in Uganda.
Tumuramye, Davis Kigongo
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Obstetric fistula is an abnormal hole that connects a woman’s Vagina, bladder and rectum through which urine and fecal materials leak continuously. The smell of the urine and feces subjects women to stigma from their spouses, relatives, and friends. Obstetric fistula is as a result of complexion related to pregnancy such as obstructed labor. In most of the developing countries like Uganda, it has been characterized by poor and highly marginalized women who didn’t have access to basic health care. Early marriages, Harmful traditional practices like Female Genital mutilation, assault and surgical are the underlying causes of obstetric fistula. The major aim of this study was to find out the social, economic and demographic factors associated with fistula in Uganda. The data used in the study was based on the 2016 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) for women aged 15-49 years. The study focused and analyzed findings on 18506 women to whom a woman’s questionnaire was administered and responded to the question QN 730 A “Have you ever experienced a constant leakage of urine or stool from your vagina during day and night after a sexual assault or pelvic surgery?” The explanatory variables were; the age of respondent, place of residence, highest education level, the region of residence, wealth status. Obstetric fistula is as a result of complexion related to pregnancy such as obstructed labor. In most of the developing countries, it has been characterized with poor and highly marginalized women who are unable timely access to basic health care. Early marriages, Harmful traditional practices like Female Genital mutilation, assault and surgical are the underlying causes of obstetric fistula. Results of the study revealed that approximately 1.4% of the females aged 15-49 reported having experienced obstetric fistula and 98.6% had not experienced fistula. Out of 18506 women respondents, 1.4% had experienced fistula and 98.6% reported having not experienced fistula. Results also further revealed that six in ten (60.6%) of the women were either married or were living with a partner, a quarter (25.8%) of the respondents had never been married and only 3.6% of the women were either widowed/divorced. Majorities (31.6%), of the respondents, were from the Western region, 29.6% were from the Central region, 20.4% were from the Eastern region and 18.4% were from the Northern region. Marital status, region, wealth index, vi highest education level, and age were found to be significantly associated experience of fistula. The only place of residence was insignificantly associated with the experience of fistula. Women who were married (OR=1.723) were 21.5% more likely to have experienced fistula relative to those who were separated (OR=1.508). Women with higher education (OR=0.529) were associated with reduced odds of experiencing fistula. Health educations talk on the fields of antenatal care services so as to reduce the risk of getting fistula. Conclusion: Early pregnancy not, low levels of education, the regions, wealth index have contributed to the massive experience of obstetric fistula in Uganda. Ensure that girl children complete tertiary education /school to help them avoid early marriage and pregnancy. That is to say, universal basic education for girl children is substantial evidence that the education of girl children play a major role in promoting maternal health and eliminating obstetric fistulas. And the government should provide a family life education about women’s health and sex education to adolescents. Having a childbirth plan (birth preparedness) and delivering in a health facility with the help of a skilled health care provider. Preparing for birth by setting aside funds and arranging transport is essential