Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Acinetobacter Species, among blood culture samples received at Makerere University College of Health Science (MakCHS) Clinical Microbiology Laboratory between March and August 2021.
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Acinetobacter spp. are glucose-non-fermentative, non-motile, non-fastidious, catalase-positive, oxidative-negative, aerobic gram-negative cocco-bacilli (Lin & Lan, 2014) present in the environment especially water and soil but can be isolated from many sources such as skin, wounds, sewage and hospital environments. It is one of the most successful pathogens responsible for hospital-acquired nosocomial infections in the modern healthcare system (Chang, et al., 2017). Methodology The study was a cross sectional study done retrospectively to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Acinetobacter isolated from blood cultures at the Makerere University College of Health Sciences Clinical Microbiology Laboratory between March 2021 and August 2021. The blood culture records were reviewed for Acinetobacter spp and those without proper identification of organisms were re-identified, then a few selected stored samples were removed from the repository and re-identified with gram test and biochemical tests. Then the prevalence of Acinetobacter, susceptibility to different antibiotics was analyzed and recorded. Results A total of 3021 blood culture samples were received from patients in medical wards, surgery wards, intensive care units, samples from pediatric wards and patients on cancer therapy from UCI between March 2021 and August 2021, 2985 samples were processed, 36 samples were rejected, and out 2985 sample processed 271 were tested positive for various pathogens and of those, only 12 tested positive for Acinetobacter. The prevalence of Acinetobacter therefore was 12/271 = 4.43%. The susceptibility results were as follows; of the 10 samples set for Cephalosporins, 4(40%) were sensitive, while 5(50%) were resistant and only one was intermediate. Of the 12 samples set for Carbapenems, 6(50%) were sensitive, while 4(33.3%) were resistant and 2 were intermediate. Of the 12 samples set for quinolones, 7(58.3%) were sensitive, 4(33.3%) were resistant while 1 was intermediate. Of the 7 samples set for sulfonamides, 4(57.1%) were sensitive, while 3(42.9%) were resistant. Of the 9 samples sets for penicillins, 4(44.4%) were sensitive, 4(44.4%) were resistant while 1 was intermediate. Conclusion The Acinetobacter organisms identified from blood culture samples with a total of 12 isolates from March to August 2021 gave us a prevalence of 4.43%. The highest prevalence was observed in adults (80%) while children (8.3%) had the lowest prevalence.