Prevalence of benign conditions of the thyroid gland as detected by the Pathology Department among patients attending FNAC Clinic Pathology Department Makerere University College of Health Sciences
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Background: Benign thyroid disorders are common in Africa. Benign disorders are usually due to environmental toxins such as exposure to radiation, due to genetics, diet, stress, local trauma or injury, inflammation or infection. Surgery is a common type of treatment for benign tumors and it's main aim is to remove the tumor without damaging the surrounding tissues. Other types of treatment of benign tumors may include medication or radiation. Autoimmune thyroid disorders, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Grave's disease account for the vast majority of thyroid dysfunction seen in most iodine-replete populations. Most thyroid nodules are adenomatous. Some are multiple and that is usually shown on ultrasound, scintigraphy and at surgery. Objective: To determine the prevalence of benign conditions of the thyroid gland as detected by the Pathology Department, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University. Method: The study was a retrospective cross-sectional laboratory study. It included all patients with benign thyroid conditions who attended FNAC clinic at Pathology Department of College of Health Sciences. It was carried out in four months beginning with the month of April, 2019. Results: A total of 291 patients was considered. The study showed that there was a total of 140 with colloidal goiter, 56 with cystic thyroid nodules, 44 with follicular benign thyroid nodules, 27 with thyroiditis and 24 with benign thyroid aspirates. Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology is widely used in the diagnosis of benign thyroid conditions because it is an excellent, safe and cost effective diagnostic procedure. Recommendation: Common interest should be put in understanding colloidal goiter, its epidemiology, treatment and preventive measures so as to reduce its prevalence among patients. Need for sensitization of the communities about thyroid conditions so as to improve their health seeking behavior.