Carriage of NDM carbapenemase genes among Escherichia coli isolates in human urine from Mbarara.
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Background: Enterobacteriaceae, a family of gram-negative bacteria to which Escherichia coli belongs easily get and transfer drug resistance genes and presence of these genes leads to production of β-lactamases. The increasing prevalence of carbapenem-resistant E. coli is of very serious concern worldwide. Current knowledge on resistance against carbapenems among E. coli is important in managing the associated infections. This study aimed at assessing the carriage of NDM carbapenem resistance genes among E. coli urine isolates from Mbarara. Methods: Pre-collected E. coli isolates obtained from urine samples from Mbarara were retrieved from the biorepository located at the Makerere University College of Health Sciences which is found within the locality of Mulago National Referral Hospital, located along Upper Mulago hill road in Kawempe Division in Kampala city, Uganda. They were then examined for NDM carbapenemase genes whose size was 621 base pairs. DNA was extracted using the modified CTAB method and PCR was run to amplify the genes after which gel electrophoresis was done to identify the genes. Results: Out of the 31 samples studied, 1 (3.2%) was positive for the NDM gene. Conclusion: This prevalence shows significant resistance of E. coli against carbapenems in Mbarara. However, there needs to be conduction of more research with a bigger sample size, as that in this study was not sufficient enough to represent the whole population in Mbarara. These findings should form a basis for preliminary decision making on the rational use of antibiotics in general and carbapenems in particular, in Uganda.