Assessment of antibiotic drug residues in selected packed chicken brands using high performance liquid chromatography
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Under intensive farming methods, a broiler chicken lives less than six weeks before slaughter.Antibiotics are used in speeding growth and yield of these poultry birds however their use is related to emergence of resistant bacteria in the animal which later transmits to human through food, environment and direct contact with the affected meat. The present study aimed at assessing the antibiotic drug residues in selected packed chicken brands using high performance liquid chromatography. The extraction of the TCs was performed by taking an Equal weight of breast muscle and leg muscle, mixed and minced and used for analysis. The determination of the antibiotics residues in chicken was performed by using the HPLC coupled with a UV and the calibration curves of the two TCs were used to determine the unknown concentration of the OTC and TC antibiotics by using their known peak area from the HPLC. TCs showed an average retention time of 3.33 ± 0.0507 min for OTC and 4.15 ± 0.0739 min after three injections. The residue concentrations of OTC in breast muscle samples of Ugachick, Biyinzika and Kuku were 0.1479±0.0044 μg/g, 0.2454±0.020 μg/g, and 0.162±0.019 μg/g respectively. The residual concentrations of OTC detected in thigh muscle samples of Ugachick, Biyinzika and Kuku brands ranged from 0.1901±0.0033 μg/g to 0.1245±0.0058 μg/g and with Biyinzika thigh sample having the highest OTC residual concentration and KUKU having the lowest concentration of OTC in the thighs.All liver samples examined contained OTC residual concentrations below the maximum residual limits of 0.6 μg/g and these ranged from 0.3607±0.0019 μg/g, 0.5282±0.0017 μg/g. The residual concentration of TC antibiotics in thigh muscle samples of Ugachick was 0.1566±0.0057 μg/g while that found in Biyinzika thigh sample was 0.1549±0.0057 μg/g and that found in Kuku thigh sample was0.1783±0.0057 μg/g (table 3). In liver samples the residual concentrations found in the chicken brands of Ugachick, Biyinzika and Kuku were 0.1367±0.0028 μg/g, 0.271±0.0032 μg/g,0.315±0.0189 μg/g respectively. The residue concentrations of TC in breast samples of Ugachick, Biyinzika and Kuku were 0.1833±0.005 μg/g, 0.2333±0.021 μg/g, and 0.1337±0.021 μg/g respectively. From the present study, it can be concluded that Ugachick and Kuku chicken is fit for human consumption as all the test samples worked on had their OTC and TC residual concentrations below the maximum residual limits recommended by the world food organization and the food and drug authority.