Analysis of the determinants of food security among urban households in Uganda, case study of Masaka District
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This dissertation aims to analyze the significant factors influencing household food security of Masaka town in Uganda. The objectives of the study were; to determine the effect of socio-demographic factors such as age, level of education, gender household size, and marital status of urban household heads on household food security. To examine the effect of economic factors such as the income level of urban households on household food security. To investigate whether the production factors such as labor force, farm size, growing of food crops, and storage of food affect urban household food security. The study employed a cross-sectional descriptive survey. Data were collected using structured questionnaires that were administered to 108 households in Masaka town. The data retrieved were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis with the aid of the SPSS software package. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered for a factor to be associated with household food security. The study applied the chi-square statistic test of independence, a non-parametric analytical tool for categorical variables, and Analysis of Variance for continuous variables. Findings revealed that age (p=0.018, 𝞆2=8.069), the labor force (p=0.041, 𝞆2=4.167), growing of food crops (p=0.000, 𝞆2=53.026) crops and storage of food (p=0.000, 𝞆2=28.024) significantly affect household food security. However, the level of education (p=0.200, 𝞆2=4.640), marital status (p=0.323, 𝞆2=3.479), gender (p=0.683, 𝞆2=0.167), farm size (p=0.778, 𝞆2=0.503), income level (p=0.071, F=1.541) and household size (p=0.514, 𝞆2=1.332) do not significantly affect household food security since their p-values are greater than 0.05. The study, therefore, concludes by suggesting that models for understanding urban food security can begin at the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) as the most appropriate tools to develop a deeper understanding of spatial and non-spatial determinants of household food security The study recommended that the population should emphasize food crop production to ensure food security in urban areas and also should be encouraged to acquire hired labor force to stimulate increased food productivity. Storage of food should be enhanced through an increase in farm productivity, value addition at the farm level through establishment of processing industries, and availing of storage facilities. Young people in urban households should be empowered by establishing agriculture projects and training them in domains of income and food production. Improving food security among urban households should be a comprehensive developmental effort involving many stakeholders along service chains.