Determinants of access to safe clean water and improved sanitation: a case study of rural and urban areas of Uganda
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The objective of this study was to generate rigorous evidence about the determinants of access to safe clean water and improved sanitation on the residents’ health of rural areas of Uganda, and to support a positive change in lives of the people living in this community by contributing to achievement of access to safe clean water and sanitation. Secondary data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) conducted by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS) between 15th June and December 2016 was used. The analysis was done using STATA 15 with univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis of variables. The results show that the percentage of female-headed households is only 28.65%, while the percentage of males as household heads is 71.35%. Majority of the respondents that is 19.56% were aged between 25-29 years of age while those aged between15-19 were the least making only 5.4% of the total respondents. About 77.67% of the respondents lived in rural areas and only 22.33% lived in urban areas. The region with the most respondents was South Buganda with 8.68% and Karamoja having the smallest number with only 4.16%. A big proportion of respondents only attended up to primary level 59.51% and only 7.13% went to higher institutions of learning. Individuals belonging to Bahai and Mammon religions only made 0.01% each of the total sample while the biggest proportion that is 41.11% were Catholics. Majority of respondents (78.39%) could not read at all and 0.21% were blind/visually impaired. In the bivariate analysis of this study, it was found out that highest education level of household head, wealth status combined had a significant effect on access to safe clean water. Sex of household head, level of education, type of place of residence, wealth status had a significant effect on access to improved sanitation at 5 % level of significance. In the multivariate analysis of this study, it was found out that the factors that significantly affect access to safe clean water were education level of household head, household wealth status and media exposure. Highest Educational level, place of residence, wealth status combined, time to get to the water source had a significant effect on access to improved sanitation at 5% level of significance. The findings indicate the need to (i) enhance household education level, (ii) make the importance of safe drinking water and improved sanitation services part of the school curriculum among others.