Analysis of Human EMF Exposure in 5G Cellular Systems
Mpawulo, Ronald Isaiah
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The project investigates human EMF exposure in 5G cellular systems in the downlinks through obtaining the range of possible Power Densities and Specific Absorption Rates. To do this, different 5G deployment scenarios (5G UMi, 5G UMa and 5G Indoor) are modelled and simulated using NYUSIM simulator. Also with the same simulator, a 4G cellular system is modelled and simulated. Different values of the received power at the UEs are obtained and an average at each of the distances is computed. Using the Average Received Power values, Power Density and SAR in each of the scenarios is obtained. A comparison between the 4G and 5G systems is made. Also a check was to find whether the PD and SAR are within the ICNIRP guidelines in terms of SAR and PD. The findings showed that SAR in 5G (especially 5G UMi and 5G indoor) was way higher as compared to 4G. However, the current ICNIRP guideline of not exceeding 2W/kg is for the frequency range of 10-10,000 MHz. No limit in terms of SAR has been set for frequencies higher than this. However, taking this limit into consideration, it was found that this limit is exceeded for close BS-UE separation. Two mitigation protocols were proposed (one for indoor and the other for outdoor) that could help minimize exposure in terms of SAR and also not to exceed a limit of 2W/kg. The indoor protocol is based on power control and the outdoor protocol puts emphasis on SAR shielding. Also the effect of this mitigation on data rates was found which was a slight reduction The results obtained show that there is need for regulations for down links in terms of SAR at higher frequencies such as 28 GHz for outdoor and 60GHz for indoor.