Analyzing night time construction issues and their impact on project performance
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According to the International Labor Organization, night time work is the all work which is performed during a period of not less than seven consecutive hours, including the interval from midnight to 5 a.m. which is usually determined by the competent authority after consulting the most representative organizations of employers and workers or by collective agreements. Therefore any construction works that occur during night time are regarded as night time construction activities (Nester, 2020). There are various issues that arise as a result of carrying out construction activities at night such as illumination issues, noise pollution, staff management issues, safety issues, dust related issues, and so on (Jennifer Sue Shane A. A., 2012). A study conducted in the United States of America by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KyTC) clearly highlights most of the night time construction issues and evaluates their impact on decision making processes, safety, project cost, project scheduling , quality of works and impact on the society (Tylor, 2001). However the research focuses more on the impact of night time construction issues to society and simply makes deductions and recommendations regarding aspects of their impact on project cost, quality and scheduling. In addition a research made in the USA entitled quantification of the impact of night time operations on construction cost and quality, discusses the night time construction issues and shows how they impact project cost and quality (Thomas, 2007). However the research does not portray how the issues affect project scheduling due to limitations in academic scope. (Jennifer Sue Shane A. A., 2012), a guide book for nighttime construction; impacts on safety, quality and productivity published in the United States of America analyses various research papers concerning night time construction and continues to make research on various aspects of performance. The research focuses on individual impact however draws conclusions from a research conducted on variables affected by night time construction where the magnitude of impact of each night time construction issue on project performance in comparison to the impact of other night time construction issues was determined and therefore the level of significance of the issues basing on their magnitude of impact on project performance was well stated by Jimmie Hinze and Dana Lynn Carlisle from the university of Washington, Seattle USA. In Uganda, there are laws, standards and regulations that address and account for the impact of night time construction issues on society such as the Occupation and Safety Act (2006) (Parliament of Uganda, 2006), the National Physical Planning and Guidelines 2011 (Directorate of Physical Planning & Urban Development, 2011) and National Environment (Noise Standards and Control) Regulations, 2003 by NEMA (NEMA, 2003). All the above are guidelines and recommendations given to curb the detrimental impact on society and although research exists on night time construction in general, no research has been made regarding the impact of night time construction issues on project cost, quality and schedule while comparing the level of significance of the issues basing on their magnitude of impact on project performance thus the need for this research. This will be achieved by assessing individual impact of the issues and developing a framework to determine the level of significance of each night time construction issue basing on its magnitude of impact on project performance.