Formulation of a Limonene Mosquito Repellent
Mutyaba, Stuart Michael
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Vector control is the main method for tackling many of the world's major infectious diseases and is used globally to avoid insect bites and control the transmission of diseases. The use of repellents to protect people from bites of mosquitoes has been acknowledged as part of an overall to reveal which plant-based repellent can rely on an integrated insect-borne disease control programme. The essential oils consisting limonene can present antimicrobial, anti-fungal, antimalarial and anti-tumoral activities (Saednia, 2012). In addition, Monoterpenes are widely distributed in nature and could be the suitable precursor substrates for production of valuable natural fragrance compounds. Among various monoterpenes, limonene as a substrate of microbial transformation or chemical semi synthesis has been a source of many oxy functional derivatives. A terpene called d-limonene produces its characteristics in lemon smell and taste. Some of the physical properties of D-Limonene includes being a colourless liquid, insoluble in water and a boiling point of 176˚C. Some of the materials used in the extraction of limonene include citrus fruit peels, Clevenger, condenser, bottomed flasks and the heat source. With regard to the results, lemon peels provided a higher percentage of limonene compared to orange peels with a greater concentration of the scent. In addition, it was proved that the higher the citrus fruit peels, the higher the extraction rate of the D-Limonene solvent. According to the World Malaria Report 2020, malaria is one of the significant reasons for maternal and childhood morbidity and mortality, including low birth weight, stillbirths, and early infant death.