Impact assessment of electric cooking on the low voltage distribution network in Uganda
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With the government's ambitious vision of increasing electricity access by 2040, the promotion of electric cooking has emerged as a strategy where 73% of the population use firewood for cooking while 21% use charcoal and only 1.4% uses electricity for cooking on the remaining 6%. However, the shift from traditional cooking methods to electric cooking poses challenges to the reliability, stability, and overall performance of the distribution network. This study aimed at the evaluation of the technical impact of increasing e-cooking loads on the low voltage distribution network in Uganda with varying percentages e-cook penetrations. The scope focused on two moderately loaded transformers along kawempe feeder and one transformer zone on the verge of overload along gayaza road feeder on Kampala north substation. For each zone, the transformer rating, number of customers, their monthly consumption and their tariff program that is commercial users, domestic users who use above 80 units, and domestic users who use below 80 units were collected from UMEME. Single line diagrams for each transformer zone were modeled in DigSILENT using the network data and a load flow was carried out. Before and after ecook penetration of each zone, the parameters considered were the transformer loading, voltage fluctuations, load profiles, system losses, and line loading. The obtained results highlighted that a gradual shift towards electric cooking is feasible in urban areas, starting with moderately loaded transformers accommodating a 40% uptake, followed by transformers at the verge of overload, allowing for a 20% uptake of electric cooking while maintaining network reliability and performance. As a result of the interventions' analysis, the study offers a long lasting fix for the utility and instills public confidence in embracing electric cooking without overwhelming the network.