Analysis of Food Security among the Fishing Communities in Uganda: Case Study of Puvungu Parish, Pakwach Town Council, Pakwach District
Odokpou, Hillary O.
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Analysis of food security among the fishing communities is crucial when formulating agricultural policies and support rural people. To understand food security, a study was conducted in Puvungu Parish in Pakwach District of Uganda. The main objectives that guided this study was to provide an analysis of food security among the fishing communities in Pakwach District. Multistage sampling was used to arrive at the sample where 120 households were selected in villages of Kakawoi A, KakawoiB, Kamana A and Kamana B of Pakwach District. Structured questionnaires administered in 120 households were used to study the analysis of food security among the fishing communities inPakwach district. Univariate analysis, bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used for analysis. The study found out that in fishing community of Puvungu Parish, households were food secure (71.1%) because a large number of them where growing food crops. Results showed that there was statistically significant relationship between number of meals i.e. food security and marital status (p=0.003), education level (p=0.008), fertilizer use (p=0.001), growing food crops (p=0.001) and household size (p=0.002) at the bivariate level because the p-values were less than the significance level of 0.05. Married household heads had higher odds ratio of food security compared to single (unmarried) class (OR=1.098, CI:0.912, 1.521) and in fact, use of fertilizers was statistically significant with food security i.e. P value = 0.014 respectively which is less than the given significance level of 0.05. Generally, from the study, the major determinant of food security was found to be growing food crops, use of fertilizers, education level and marital status while other factors like gender, age, occupation and use of irrigation had no significant effect on food security. The conclusion of the study was that growing food crops was the socio-economic factor with significant impact on number of meals which ultimately influenced household food security in the study area and on the other hand, use of fertilizers was significantly associated with the number of meals of households i.e. food security and the researcher recommended that emphasis should be put on food crop production in order to ensure food security in an area. This is because food security has two major distinct variables: food availability measured by food production and food access measured by the level of income and also household should impact on food storage in order to ensure food availability in times of food shortage and calamities.