Investigating the effect of Sullage and Sanitary effluent on concrete strength
MetadataShow full item record
Whilst the urbanization trend in high-income countries is steadily increasing, that of middle- and low-income countries especially on the African continent is escalating (UNHABITAT, 2004). Rapid urban growth of Kampala has resulted in drastic population increase leading to rapid growth of slums (Vestbro, 2011) and environmental problems (Vermeiren et al., 2012) such as floods due to clearing of wetlands to construct residential and commercial building (Ngwomoya, 2018). To combat these floods, Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA) constructed stormwater drainage channels in slums of Lubaga, Kawempe and Makindye in 2017 (Kalumba, 2018). These channels have illegal connections from pit latrines, bathrooms and kitchens. As such, they convey both stormwater and effluent. Because of the poor sanitation, hygiene and waste management systems in urban slums of Kampala, there is rampant disposal of waste into the storm-water drainage channels (Kulabako, 2010). Effluent is liquid waste discharged into a river or the sea (United States Environmental Protection Agency , 2002). For this research, the term effluent is being used to refer to sullage and sanitary effluent discharged from households and pit latrines into the storm water drainage channels.