Assessment of rural potable water access and spatial distribution using GIS techniques in Sheema District
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Access to a safe water supply for drinking is universally recognized as a basic human need for preset generation and precondition for the development and care of the next. But, many rural communities are suffering from lack of safe drinking water supply facilities specifically in Rugarama Sub-county. So, in order to realize the severity of shortage of safe water in the rural community and to find solutions it is important to take an assessment on the existing accessibility situation of water points in Rugarama. To do that, detail accessibility assessment has been taken in the issues of: Type of water technologies introduced to the sub-county, spatial coverage of water schemes and ratio to the beneficiaries, accessibility coverage of safe water in relation to regional standard. To do that spatial and non-spatial data were collected from primary and secondary and analyzed using cost distance, descriptive statistical tables and graphs and by visualizing the results in the map. As a result, the study identified 29 water schemes spatially distributed in the study area. Of the total, 19 (65.5%) and 10 (34.5%) were functional and non-functional water schemes respectively. The basic reasons for nonfunctionality of water schemes were: weakness in maintenance and operation system, lack of spare part accesses and quality, lack of ownership in the beneficiaries, poor financial capacity of the community to repair the breakdown water schemes and for different activities and poor management system were agreed upon by the respondents as key problems to the non-functionality of water schemes in their district. The study found out that there are three types of potable water technologies: Shallow well or Bore holes, Hand dug well, and protected Springs were introduced to the study area. Protected springs covered majority of the sub-county, 58.6% followed by hand dung well 27.6% and Shallow well 13.8%. The ratio of water schemes to the existing total population of the Rugarama Sub-county in 2018 was 0.0019 water schemes to each person or 1.9 water schemes (sources) to 1000 beneficiaries. Also, the distributions of water schemes are not equity to the existing population and to the given area. Only 28.4% (2,846) of the total rural population of Rugarama Sub-county (10,022) is accessible. The remaining 71.6% of the total rural population (7,176) of the Rugarama Sub-county is un able to accessible to potable water.