Development of an energy model for a rural community in Uganda; a case study of Kisomere village, Buliisa district.
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In 2014, Uganda's grid electrification rate amounted to approximately 20% on national level and 10% in rural areas. The majority of people in rural areas strongly rely on firewood for cooking and candles and kerosene for lighting. Such lamps do not only provide poor quality lighting but also emit noxious fumes and present a fire and burns hazard, especially to children. In spite of the many alternative energy sources available in Uganda, the population heavily relies on biomass energy, especially for cooking, due to its accessibility and affordability. Biomass, mostly firewood or charcoal, provides for 90% of the total primary energy consumption and contributes to severe deforestation, fuel scarcity and hence, rising fuel prices. The lack of access to electricity hinders business development, communication and access to information (Electrification, 2017). It is against this background that the main aim of this work is to develop a better energy future for Kisomere Village, a rural community in Buliisa district. The community has a daily energy demand of 54.67kWh. Cooking uses 2,234 kg of firewood and 93.75kg of charcoal daily. 94% of the household collect firewood used while the rest buy the wood from Kisomere Market. 82% of the charcoal users buy them with only 18% engaging in the charcoal burning activity to cater for their energy need. Household lighting options ranges from LED Light bar (1%), LED Bulb (29%),Tadooba (33%),Torch (30%),Firewood (1%), and Torch Bulb Lamp (8%) with poor quality lighting evidenced in all these options due to very low light intensity, not good to the human eye. The distribution of household electronics is mobile phones (49%), radio receiver (30%), iron box (8%) and woofer system 13%). A solar PV-Battery mini grid with a capacity of 84.6kW has been designed to supply the community energy need alongside the use of improved mud rocket stove and the shielded three stone fire as cook stoves to replace the traditional three stone fire. These cook stoves are made from locally available materials with an increased efficiency of 30% as compared to the traditional three stone fire with an efficiency of only about 15%.