Effects of aerial total crude extract of Gynandropsis gynandra on blood glucose levels of orally fed high glucose-load adult Wistar albino rats: Nested study
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Background: Gynandropsis gynandra is a common indigenous plant found in the tropical and pan tropical regions of the world where it is used as a food and medicinal plant. It has been reported to have a hypoglycemic activity and so commonly consumed by various communities of Uganda. However, there is limited information on its hypoglycemic activity of the aerial part of the plant. Aim: The study evaluated the hypoglycemic activity of aerial total crude extracts of G. gynandra on the oral glucose-fed load Wistar albino rats. Methods: An experimental laboratory-based study was carried out on four groups of animals each consisting of 6 animals. Group I was dosed 500 mg/kg bwt, group II was dosed 1000 mg/kg bwt of aerial total crude extract of G. gynandra, group III was dosed glibenclamide and group IV was dosed normal saline. Standard methods and procedures were used in this study. Veno puncture was done on the tail vein of each animal to draw a drop of blood and blood glucose levels was measured at different time intervals (0, 30, 60, 90, 150 and 240 minutes) using a SD CodeFree glucometer following dosing the animals. Data was entered into excel spread sheet and exported to GenStat 14th Edition for data analysis. One-way ANOVA was used to compare means and Tukey’s test for mean separation between the different treatment groups at 95% confidence interval. The results were presented in a table and a line graph. Results: Both the 500 and 1000 mg/kg bwt of the aerial total crude extract of G. gynandra reduced blood glucose levels of oral glucose load-fed rats similar to that observed with normal saline. The effect was more significant (P< 0.05) with 1000 mg/kg bwt at 90 minutes than the 500 mg/kg bwt. Glibenclamide significantly reduced the blood sugar levels of the animals from 150 to 240 minutes compared to the extracts. Conclusion: The effects of the two doses of total aerial crude extract of G. gynandra were similar in reducing the blood glucose levels in the orally fed glucose-load Wistar albino rats. However, glibenclamide significantly reduced the blood glucose levels compared to the extracts (500 and 1000 mg/kg bwt). This study has provided evidence of the hypoglycemic activity of the G. gynandra and hence its possible beneficial effect as a local vegetable for diabetic patients in Uganda.