Weight status and dietary patterns of type 2 diabetic patients aged 20-65 years in Jinja regional referral hospital
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously known for "the rich'', has become a health problem affecting both the rich and poor. The disease has increasingly become prevalent in adults and the elderly. Diabetes mellitus is a medical complication characterized by an elevation of blood glucose level. The increasing prevalence of T2DM has not been counteracted with enough sensitization about the dietary management of disease. This study aimed at identifying dietary patterns of type 2 diabetic patients in Jinja Regional Referral Hospital (JRRH). Methodology: The study was carried out at JRRH and the study population consisted of adults (20 years to 65 years) with a sample size of 105 participants. Purposive sampling was used and data collected using anthropometry, questionnaires and 24 hour recall. Nutrition status (BMI), food groups consumed and relationship between diabetes and obesity were determined. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Results showed that the majority of the participants were female (58.1%) and most of the participants had basic education. The results showed that 48.6% of the participants were overweight and 20% obese. Only 25% of the participants had normal BMI whereas 5.7% were underweight. Majority of the people (98.1%) were not engaged in smoking and alcohol consumption. There was no significant relationship (P>0.05) between T2DM and the study variables of BMI, dietary intake, smoking and alcohol consumption. However, Cross tabulation between marital statuses, nature of work of the participants and type 2 diabetes mellitus showed significant relationship with p-values of 0.46 and 0.009 respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study have revealed that majority of the participants had three meals per day, however the energy intake was low (52.8%, 1800Kcal). The most consumed food groups were cereals and legumes. Fruit consumption among these patients was very low. There was no relationship between almost all the study variables and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was high consumption of high energy foods such as cereals and plantain. The consumption of high energy foods poses high risks of obesity and the possible outcomes like type 2 diabetes. There is more need for sensitization on dietary intake and further investigation on dietary patterns of diabetic patients.