Effects of utilization of blackstrap molasses on the physical, chemical and sensory properties of white bread
Otim, Denis Johnan
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White bread is a widely consumed wheat product in many households both globally and in Uganda. However, it has a low nutrient density, which is a major challenge in an era when many consumers are changing their eating habits in preference of the high nutrient dense foods. On the other hand, blackstrap molasses is a nutrient-rich bi-product of sugar processing that finds limited use in the Ugandan food industries, though having a growing popularity for its health promoting benefits. In this study, breads with varying rates of substitution of blackstrap molasses (0%, 20%, 50%, 80% and 100%) for sugar were developed. The formulations used were based on a recipe adopted from Kisufu Bakery, which operates under the FTBIC at SFTNB. Some physical, chemical properties and sensory attributes of the breads were determined. Moisture and ash contents were determined using AOAC standard methods, while total carbohydrates was determined using the method described by Neilsen (2010). A texture analyser was used to measure the firmness of the bread over an eight-day storage period in order to determine the rate of staling, while crumb colour was assessed using the Lovibond Tintometer . The volume of the breads was determined using the displacement method. Sensory acceptability of the breads was rated on a nine-point hedonic scale using untrained panellists comprised of 39 students from SFTNB at Makerere University. The consumers’ willingness to purchase the products was rated on a five-point Likert scale. The analysis of data was done using XLSTAT (2019) and Microsoft Excel (2016). The results indicate that there was no significant difference (p<0.05) in ash content of all the breads. The moisture content of bread containing 20% and 50% molasses was lower than that of the control (0% molasses). There was a decrease in the total carbohydrate of the breads as the proportion of molasses was increased. The crumb colour of the breads with molasses was significantly different from that of the control (p<0.05). The volume of bread increased with increasing proportion of molasses. Substitution of sugar with 80% and 100% molasses resulted in bread with volume higher than that of the control. No significant changes (p>0.05) were registered in bread firmness over the 8 day storage period. However, the firmness of the bread with 20% and 50% molasses was higher than that of the control throughout the eight-day storage. The sensory acceptability of the bread formulations ranged from 5.3 to 7.8, while the willingness to purchase ranged from 2.8 to 3.7. These results indicate the potential to blackstrap molasses in the manufacture of bread.