Production and characterization of jack fruit waste briquettes
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Naturally, 60% of a ripe jackfruit is not eaten and is usually discarded as agricultural waste. This research explores the possibility of producing briquettes from jackfruit waste as an alternative cooking fuel. Two main jackfruit varieties, the soft and firm variety in Uganda were collected from Kayunga district and were used during this study. Four different briquettes were developed; a jackfruit waste briquette, a composite briquette with jackfruit waste and jackfruit leaves, jackfruit waste and banana leaves and a fourth briquette with jackfruit waste, jackfruit leaves and banana leaves. Proximate analysis and calorific value of the raw materials and briquettes developed was done using the Thermo-gravimetric analyzer and Bomb Calorimeter respectively. The results show that jackfruit waste has a calorific value of 17.54 MJ/ kg for the firm variety and 15.77 MJ/kg for the soft variety which is comparable to other agricultural waste like rice husks and cotton. The briquette developed from jackfruit waste alone had a calorific value of 19.513 MJ/kg. There was a significant interaction between the effects of mixing ratio and briquette type on calorific value, density, time of boil, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content. The proximate analysis of jackfruit waste briquette was as follows; 9.13 % moisture content, 36.34% volatile matter, 18.82% ash and 35.71% fixed carbon. The water boiling test showed that jackfruit waste briquette took 34 minutes to boil 2.5 liters of water. Among the briquette combinations, jackfruit waste-banana leaves-jackfruit leaves briquette (70:30:00) yielded the highest calorific value at 21.98 MJ/kg. The particular combination also yielded the highest density an indicator of more stable briquette and took the shortest time of 29 minutes to boil 2.5 liters of water.