Parental separation, self-esteem and substance use among young adolescents
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The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parental separation, self-esteem and substance use among young adolescents (10-14). Parental conflicts has been identified to have a significant impact on the adolescent’s coping ability, emotional support from both parents, levels of their self-esteem and confidence motivating the need for them to escape reality and making the pain look distant hence at risk in substance use(khandelwal et al, 2016). Research indicates that adolescents that feel connected to their family report lower levels of cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use as well as less likely to engage in problem behavior such as violence (Russell V et al, 2012). Self-esteem is identified as an important contributor to substance use among the early adolescents because it is considered to have a crucial impact on behavioral choice and action (Chung Gun Lee, 2018). The reflection on the respondent’s family type was got by the question "whom are do you with?" And self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale which is constrained to 10 items measuring global self-worth by measuring both positive and negative about the self. Substance use was measured with the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance use Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) which was developed for the WHO by an international group of substance use researchers in 2002. However majority of the participants were males other than females and the participants were basically students of Brightway hill secondary school currently in senior one and two with different family backgrounds but studying in the same classes. The findings reflect no significant relationship between the family type, self-esteem and substance use. Researchers have conducted studies regarding substance use and self-esteem among the young adolescents but few literature reviews are available for the studies of parental separation and its relationship with substance use and self-esteem. The adolescents living with none or either of the biological parents have high self-esteem which can be explained in the system of the attachment theory and symbolic interactionism.