The effect of social demographic factors on optimism among Makerere University Social Science final year students Kampala
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The major purpose of the study was to examine the effects of social demographic factors such as age, gender, marital status, employment status and religion on optimism among Makerere University final year social science students. The study adopted correlation research design because it is a specific type of non-experimental design used to describe the difference between social demographic factors and optimism. As ample of 80 participants were selected krejcie and Morgan's (1970) table for determining sample size. Data was collected by use of self-administered questionnaires and analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Pearson's correlation was used to test age and optimism, T-Test and ANOVA were used to test the effect of other social demographic factors on optimism hypothesis 1(1a - 1f). The researcher observed and concluded that there is no significant difference between males (M=2.5211, S.D =0.616) and females (M=2.49, S.D=0.495), P-Value =0.823 and their levels of optimism. The study also revealed that there is a significant differences between optimism level and employment status of Makerere University social science students meaning that those under employed were more optimistic the fully employed. The study also discovered that there is a significant difference between optimism levels and religious affiliation of a person hence religion slightly influences optimism. Findings showed SDA students were more optimistic on average than other religious affiliations. The study indicated that there is no significant relationship between marital status and levels of optimism amongst social science students. It was found that there is a significant difference between optimism levels and social economic status of the students where love income earners were more optimistic on average than high income earners. The study still indicated that age and optimism move in the same direction meaning that, as someone grows, he or she becomes more optimistic. It is recommended that government and other stake holders including NGOs should organize more strategies to create employment opportunities for graduate students like career training in order to have optimistic individuals. Furthermore, there should be or research to be carried out in order to understand the difference between social demographic factors and optimism among students. There is need for the government to sensitize, people on both advantages and disadvantages of optimism.